Endoscopy is the examination and inspection of the interior of body organs through an endoscope. An endoscope is a device using fibre optics and powerful lens systems to provide lighting and visualization of the interior of a body organs or cavity. The portion of the endoscope inserted into the body may be rigid or flexible, depending upon the medical procedure.

Some parts of the small intestines cannot be viewed through a regular endoscope, but can be viewed through a new technique called Video Capsule endoscopy.